World's #1 Laboratory on Motor Preferences 

Perform as your body wants to!
It's easier, more efficient and safer!

What are the benefits for athletes?

The profiling of motor preferences make it possible to emphasize the physical capacities and natural qualities of an athlete (called motor profile) and to limit training that is far from the athlete's spontaneous qualities (called opposite motor profile or shadow zone) in order to limit the risks of regressing by inhibiting the athlete's natural qualities, which would result in a loss of self-confidence and an increased risk of injury.

How motor preferences work ?

The human brain is lateralized and has dominant areas that are used extensively to the detriment of other less used areas that are opposite to them. The use of the dominant brain areas will be natural while its opposite will require more effort.

For example, for a right-handed person, writing with the right hand will be natural, easy and fluid, whereas writing with the left hand will be much more difficult, anarchic and will require concentration.

Exercise to better understand: quickly cross your arms several times. You will notice that it is always the same arm that is positioned in front. 

Now cross your arms again quickly, but this time try to reverse the arm that is in front. 

Have you noticed that this change requires effort and is not natural. This is exactly what happens when you use your motor profile with completely natural movements or when you use your opposite profile which generates more difficulty and therefore more energy expenditure.

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Motor preferences allow us to individualize the therapeutic and sports management according to the natural movement of each individual.

Which exercises are recommended for your profile?
Any conditioning drill or technical gesture are feasible for all profiles, but the prevalences are specific to the profiles. It would be counterproductive and even dangerous to ask for repeated vertical plyometrics to a TERRESTRIAL profile. It would also be unnatural to try to repeat slow squat exercises in an AERIAL. In both cases, the efficiency would be less and it would increase the risk of injuries. For TERRESTRIAL, we will therefore insist on concentric exercises, while for AERIALS we will favor plyometric exercises. 


As a world leader in scientific research on natural motor preferences, Volodalen offers you a list of scientific and general public publications.

Aerial and Terrestrial patterns: A novel approach to analyzing human running.

Do subjective assessments of running patterns reflect objective parameters?

The implications of time on the ground on running economy: less is not always better.

Intra & inter-rater reliability of the Volodalen® scale to assess Aerial and Terrestrial running forms.

Duty factor reflects lower limb kinematics of running.

Does Characterizing Global Running Pattern Help to Prescribe Individualized Strength Training in Recreational Runners?

Different plantar flexors neuro-muscular and mechanical characteristics depending on the preferred running form.

The effect of natural preferences on serving biomechanics: a new approach to the motor skills of tennis players.

A multivariate polynomial regression to reconstruct ground contact and flight times based on a sine wave model for vertical ground reaction force and measured effective timings.

A single sacral-mounted inertial measurement unit to estimate peak vertical ground reaction force, contact time, and flight time in running.

The Nike Vaporfly 4%: a game changer to improve performance without biomechanical explanation yet.

Examination of running pattern consistency across speeds.

Feel your stride and find your preferred running speed.

Similar running economy with different running patterns along the Aerial-Terrestrial continuum.

Motor preferences in running and quiet standing.

Recognition of foot strike pattern in Asian recreational runners.

Duty factor is a viable measure to classify spontaneous running forms.

Footstrike pattern at the 10 km and 39 km points of the Singapore marathon in recreational runners.

Predicting temporal gait kinematics: anthropometric characteristics and global running pattern matter.

Both a single sacral marker and the whole-body center of mass accurately estimate peak vertical ground reaction force in running.

Estimating effective contact and flight times using a sacral-mounted inertial measurement unit.

A novel kinematic detection of foot-strike and toe-off events during non instrumented treadmill running to estimate contact time.

There is no global running pattern more economic than another at endurance running speeds.

Non‐South East Asians have a better running economy and different anthropometrics and biomechanics than South East Asians.

PIMP your stride: preferred running form to guide individualized injury rehabilitation.

Duty factor and foot‐strike pattern do not represent similar running pattern at the individual level.

Comparison of different machine learning models to enhance sacral acceleration-based estimations of running stride temporal variables and peak vertical ground reaction force

Concurrent endurance training with either plyometric or dynamic body-weight training both improve running economy with minimal or no changes in running biomechanics

Accurate estimation of peak vertical ground reaction force using the duty factor in level treadmill running